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Appendix 9: Glossary


Aggregated Collections

"A bibliographic service that provides online access to the digital full-text of periodicals published by different publishers. Because aggregator databases can be very large, tracking their coverage is not an easy task for serials librarians. A task group of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) is working on standards for analytic catalog records for serials titles available electronically from aggregator services. Currently, the top three journal aggregators in the United States are EBSCO, Gale Group, and ProQuest. Recently, EBSCO has been building market share by offering higher up-front payments to secure exclusivity from the publishers of certain journals. The effects of this competitive practice on libraries and the end-user are as yet unclear."

Audio Visual Materials

"A work in a medium that combines sound and visual images, for example, a motion picture or video recording with a sound track, or a slide presentation synchronized with audiotape. Directory information for products and services provided by the audiovisual industry is available in AV Market Place (AVMP), published annually by R.R. Bowker. Also spelled audio-visual and abbreviated a-v. See also: media."



"All the issues of a periodical that precede the current issue, usually bound in annual volumes or converted to microfilm or microfiche to conserve space. In the catalog record, the extent of the back file is indicated in the holdings statement. See also: holdings."



"An association of independent libraries and/or library systems established by formal agreement, usually for the purpose of resource sharing. Membership may be restricted to a specific geographic region, type of library (public, academic, special), or subject specialization. In the United States, two leading examples are the Orbis Cascade Alliance, serving member colleges, universities, and community colleges in Oregon and Washington, and OhioLINK, serving the college and university libraries of Ohio and the Ohio State Library. Plural: consortia."



"In serials, the process of identifying subscriptions for cancellation, usually in response to subscription price increases and budgetary constraints. In book and nonprint collections, the process of identifying titles for weeding, usually on the basis of currency, usage, and condition. The opposite of selection."

"The process of examining items in a library collection title by title to identify for permanent withdrawal those that meet pre-established weeding criteria, especially when space in the stacks is limited. Public libraries usually weed routinely on the basis of circulation. In academic libraries, weeding is done less frequently, usually only when the shelves become overcrowded, in anticipation of a move, or when a significant change occurs in curriculum, such as the elimination of a major. Weeding should be undertaken judiciously because out of print titles can be difficult to replace. Compare with deselection."


Electronic Archiving

"A system designed for locating, storing, and providing access to digital materials over the long term. A digital archive may use a variety of preservation methods to ensure that materials remain usable as technology changes, including emulation and migration. The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP) led by the Library of Congress is an example of a program aimed at preserving digital content. Synonymous with digital repository. Compare with digital archives. "

"Archival materials that have been converted to machine-readable format, usually for the sake of preservation or to make them more accessible to users. A prime example is American Memory, a project undertaken by the Library of Congress to make digital collections of primary sources on the history and culture of the United States available via the Internet. Also refers to information originally created in electronic format, preserved for its archival value (see digital archive)."

Electronic Resources

"Material consisting of data and/or computer program(s) encoded for reading and manipulation by a computer by the use of a peripheral device directly connected to the computer or remotely via a network such as the Internet (AACR2). The category includes software applications, electronic texts, bibliographic databases, etc. Abbreviated e-resource. See also: file."


File Types

"In electronic data processing, the type of code in which a data file is written, indicated by a three- or four-letter extension at the end of the filename (example: dictionary.html for a file in HTML script). Common file types and their extensions:

File Type Extension
Plain ASCII text .txt
Adobe PDF .pdf
Hypertext Markup Language .htm or .html
Standard Generalized Markup Language .sgml
Extensible Markup Language .xml
GIF image .gif
JPEG image .jpg or .jpeg
TIFF image .tiff
Bitmap .bmp
PostScript file .ps
AIFF sound file .aif or .aiff
AU sound file .au
WAV sound file .wav
QuickTime movie .mov
MPEG movie .mpg or .mpeg



"The provision of published or unpublished documents in hard copy, microform, or digital format, usually for a fixed fee upon request. In most libraries, document delivery service is provided by the interlibrary loan office on a cost-recovery basis. The patron is usually required to pick up printed material at the library, but electronic full-text may be forwarded via e-mail. Also refers to the physical or electronic delivery of documents from a library collection to the residence or place of business of a library user, upon request. Click here to connect to, a directory of document suppliers provided by Instant Information Systems. See also: Ariel and electronic document delivery."


"When a book or other item needed by a registered borrower is checked out, unavailable for some other reason, or not owned by the library, a patron may request that it be borrowed from another library by filling out a printed interlibrary loan request form at a service desk, or electronically via the library's Web site. Some libraries also accept ILL requests via e-mail or by telephone, usually under exceptional circumstances. Materials borrowed on interlibrary loan may usually be renewed on or before the due date.

Interlibrary loan is a form of resource sharing that depends on the maintenance of union catalogs. The largest interlibrary loan network in the world is maintained by OCLC, which uses the WorldCat database as its union catalog. The Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) of the American Library Association has developed an Interlibrary Loan Code for the United States. See also ILLWeb, maintained by Mary Hollerich of the Northeastern University School of Law. Compare with document delivery service and intralibrary loan. See also: Ariel, borrowing library, fill rate, lending library, and reciprocal agreement."

Internet Media Type

A general category of Internet content (application, image, text, audio, etc.). For each media type, a number of subtypes are defined to further refine the categorization, for example, "application/pdf," "image/tiff," and "text/sgml." The Internet media type and subtype are often used synonymously with MIME media type.

IP Recognition

"IP stands for Internet Protocol, the physical address of a client or server computer attached to a network governed by the TCP/IP protocol, written as four sets of arabic numerals separated by dots (example: 123.456.78.9). Each IP address has an associated alphanumeric Internet address in the Domain Name System (DNS), which is easier to remember."


Library Agencies

"For archival purposes, any commercial enterprise, organization, institution, or other corporate body that creates and manages records of its business, activities, or affairs. In very large organizations, subordinate units (sections, departments, offices) may function as separate agencies. In a more general sense, any person (agent) or organization that has the authority to perform a specific function, for example, the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH)"



"A generic term for a highly reduced photographic copy of text and/or images stored on a translucent medium (microfiche or microfilm) or on an opaque medium such as card stock (microopaque or aperture card). Microforms can be original editions or reproductions. Reader-printer machines are required to view and make hard copies. Digital storage media such as magnetic tape and disk, CD-ROM, etc., are superseding microforms in information storage and retrieval, but the transformation is far from complete. Microforms currently available for purchase are listed by author/title and subject in Guide to Microforms in Print, published annually by K.G. Saur. Compare with macroform. See also: computer output microform."


"A relatively short book or treatise on a single subject, complete in one physical piece, usually written by a specialist in the field. Monographic treatment is detailed and scholarly but not extensive in scope. The importance of monographs in scholarly communication depends on the discipline. In the humanities, monographs remain the format of choice for serious scholars, but in the sciences and social sciences where currency is essential, journals are usually the preferred means of publication.

For the purpose of library cataloging, any nonserial publication, complete in one volume or intended to be completed in a finite number of parts issued at regular or irregular intervals, containing a single work or collection of works. Monographs are sometimes published in monographic series and subseries. Compare with book."


Proxy server

"An application program that operates between a client and server on a computer network, usually installed as a firewall to provide security or to increase speed of access by performing some of the housekeeping tasks that would normally be handled by the server itself, such as checking authentication or validating user requests. Also called a proxy. See also: daemon."


Scholarly Communication Initiatives

"scholarly communication: The means by which individuals engaged in academic research and creative endeavor inform their peers, formally or informally, of the work they are engaged in or have accomplished. Following a tradition that began with the Academy in ancient Athens, scholars communicate by writing monographs and journal articles for publication, presenting conference papers that may subsequently be published in proceedings and transactions, submitting reports in fulfillment of grant requirements, creating and maintaining Web sites for the academic community, and corresponding with peers via e-mail and electronic mailing lists. Broadly defined, the process includes not only the creation and dissemination of scholarly works but also evaluation for quality (peer review) and preservation for future use. One of the goals of academic libraries is to facilitate scholarly communication in all its forms. Click here to read the statement of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) on Principles and Strategies for the Reform of Scholarly Communication (C&RL News, September 2003).

Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC)

An international alliance of approximately 200 universities, research libraries, and library associations, SPARC was created in 1998 by several Association of Research Libraries (ARL) directors to address the pricing practices and policies of scientific, technical, and medical (STM) journal publishers. The coalition seeks to educate faculty on academic serials issues, fosters competition in the scholarly communication market, and advocates fundamental changes in the system and culture of scholarly communication. Click here to connect to the SPARC homepage. See also: Open Archives Initiative.

Standing Orders

"An order placed by a library with a publisher, jobber, or dealer to supply each volume or part of a specific title or type of publication as published, until further notice. Unlike subscriptions that must be paid in advance, standing orders are billed as each volume is shipped. Sometimes used synonymously with continuation order."


"SUNYConnect is the SUNY-wide electronic library initiative supported by Peter D. Salins, Ph.D., the Provost and Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs, and coordinated by the Office of Library and Information Services. Its goal is to allow students, faculty, and staff on any campus or at any location and at any time of the day access to a set of core digital library services. A fully implemented SUNYConnect includes: easy, integrated access to all SUNY library catalogs, networked access to basic online reference tools and fulltext databases, and the ability to receive library instruction, reference assistance, and document delivery services from a remote location." Each SUNY campus' library financially supports SUNYConnect initiatives in which they participate.


Variant forms/formats

"Also refers to the particular physical presentation of a bibliographic item (AACR2). For printed publications, format includes size, proportions, quality of paper, typeface, illustration, layout, and style of binding. Synonymous in American usage with get up (books). In a more general sense, the physical medium in which information is recorded, including print and nonprint documents."


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